विकरणप्रत्ययाः Part 1

To create a verb in Sanskrit, there are a few elements that one needs to consider.  If we take a verb like पठति, there are two main parts.  One is the धातु or the verb root which is पठ् and the other is the प्रत्यय or the suffix which is तिप्.  There is also a third element known as the  विकरण प्रत्यय that sits between the धातु and the प्रत्यय.  In this lesson, we will look over the rules that have been laid out by Panini regarding the application of these विकरण प्रत्यय, which go from sutra 3.1.67 to 3.1.82.

  1. The first sutra in this sequence is सार्वधातुके यक् ।।३.१.६२।।
    • This simply says that when there is a सार्वधातुक प्रत्यय, the विकरण “यक्” should be inserted before it.  For example, पठ् + ते = पठ् + यक्+ ते = पठ् + य + ते = पठ्यते
  2. कर्तरि शप् ।।३.१.६३।।
    • Now this sutra is an अपवाद of the previous one.  It says that in the case of a कर्तरि प्रत्यय (a suffix in the sense of active voice), we are to use the विकरण “शप्” instead of “यक्”.  Example – पठ् + ति = पठ् + शप् + ति = पठति
  3. दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् ।।३.१.६४।।
    • This sutra too is an अपवाद of the previous one, कर्तरि शप् . It is basically saying that when we have a धातु from the दिवादि गण (which is one of the 10 धातु groups) in the sense of कर्तरि (active voice), we use श्यन् instead of शप्। Example:  दिव + ति = दिव् + श्यन् + ति = दीव्यति
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